He was defeated in the Battle of Zama in 202 BC and Carthage sued for peace. [84][85][86] The invasion initially went well and in 255 BC the Carthaginians sued for peace; the proposed terms were so harsh they fought on. [108] Evidence of Carthage's financial situation includes their request for a 2,000 talent loan[note 5][note 6] from Ptolemaic Egypt, which was refused. Whenever Carthage petitioned Rome for redress, or permission to take military action, Rome backed its ally, Masinissa, and refused. The Punic Wars (punic = Phoenician, the Carthaginians were a Phoenician people) were between Rome and Carthage. The name Punic comes from the word Carthaginian in Latin. Read More on This Topic Punic Wars: First Punic War (264–241 bce) In 205 BC a last attempt was made by Mago to recapture New Carthage when the Roman occupiers were shaken by another mutiny and an Iberian uprising, but he was repulsed. It lasted 23 years, until 241 BC, when after immense materiel and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians were defeated. [139][140] Hamilcar ruled as a viceroy and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Hasdrubal, in the early 220s BC and then his son, Hannibal, in 221 BC. Rome built and equipped over 100 ships to take on the Carthaginian navy and finally, in 241 BC, was able to win a decisive victory against the Carthaginians at sea. In 219 BC, Hannibal (son of Hamilcar Barca, a Carthaginian general during the First Punic War) broke the tentative peace between the two cities and laid siege to Saguntum (in eastern Spain), then an ally of Rome. [71][75][76] The Romans built a navy to challenge Carthage's,[77] and using the corvus inflicted a major defeat at the Battle of Mylae in 260 BC. [237], As well as manning the walls of Carthage, the Carthaginians formed a field army under Hasdrubal, which was based 25 kilometres (16 mi) to the south. [219] After landing in Africa in 204 BC, he was joined by Masinissa and a force of Numidian cavalry. Punic Wars DRAFT. [101] Repeated attempts to storm Lilybaeum's strong walls failed, as did attempts to block access to its harbour, and the Romans settled down to a siege which was to last nine years. Rome won all three Punic wars.They didn't. This war is the shortest of the three and seems to have been the final nail in the coffin of the Carthage Empire. Carthage, Rome, Rome. This war was the second instalment of the Punic War’s between the Romans and the Carthage Empire and is most well known for the command of the Carthage forces by Hannibal. It was the long-standing Roman procedure to elect two men each year, known as consuls, as senior magistrates, who at time of war would each lead an army. Preview this quiz on Quizizz. The Punic Wars were a series of conflicts fought by the powerful cities of Carthage and Rome between 264 BC and 146 BC. By the terms of the peace treaty Carthage paid large reparations and Sicily was annexed as a Roman province. Away from the coasts its hilly and rugged terrain made manoeuvring large forces difficult and favoured the defence over the offence. Then, deeming the treaty to be complete, the city went to war against Numidia, in what is now Algeria. Rome, Carthage, Carthage. [113], The Romans rebuilt their fleet again in 243 BC[114] after the Senate approached Rome's wealthiest citizens for loans to finance the construction of one ship each, repayable from the reparations to be imposed on Carthage once the war was won. [42] Slingers were frequently recruited from the Balearic Islands. This expedition enjoyed considerable early success, but after 14 years the survivors withdrew. Both legionary sub-units and individual legionaries fought in relatively open order. They were divided into three ranks, of which the front rank also carried two javelins, while the second and third ranks had a thrusting spear instead. To counter this, the Romans introduced the corvus, a bridge 1.2 metres (4 feet) wide and 11 metres (36 feet) long, with a heavy spike on the underside, which was designed to pierce and anchor into an enemy ship's deck. [159] As a result, most of the Gallic tribes declared for the Carthaginian cause, and Hannibal's army grew to more than 40,000 men. Two of the major Samnite tribes also joined the Carthaginian cause. [87] At the Battle of Tunis in spring 255 BC a combined force of infantry, cavalry and war elephants under the command of the Spartan mercenary Xanthippus crushed the Romans. This could be increased to 5,000 in some circumstances, These elephants were typically about 2.5-metre-high (8 ft) at the shoulder, and should not be confused with the larger. Roman General Publius Cornelius Scipio, later known as Scipio Africanus, emerged in opposition to Hannibal during this conflict. Feel Free to contact me for book requests, informations or feedbacks. [33] The balance were equipped as heavy infantry, with body armour, a large shield and short thrusting swords. [55] A quinquereme carried a crew of 300: 280 oarsmen and 20 deck crew and officers. [121][122] Hamilcar Barca, a veteran of the campaigns in Sicily, was given joint command of the army in 240 BC, and supreme command in 239 BC. [155][207] Claudius Nero brought over reinforcements in 210 BC and stabilised the situation. How did the Romans win the first Punic war? [25] Relationships were good and the two states had several times declared their mutual friendship via formal alliances: in 509 BC, 348 BC and around 279 BC. This was insufficient to challenge Hannibal's army in open battle, but sufficient to force him to concentrate his forces and to hamper his movements. [132][133][134], With the suppression of the rebellion, Hamilcar understood that Carthage needed to strengthen its economic and military base if it were to again confront Rome. [252] There is a tradition that Roman forces then sowed the city with salt, but this has been shown to have been a 19th-century invention. Rome won the Third Punic War and made sure that there would never be a fourth Punic War. Rome in 264 BC was relatively small  – a far cry from its later superiority – and it was the city of Carthage (located in what we now know as Tunisia) that reigned supreme in the ancient world. [256] Numerous large Punic cities, such as those in Mauretania, were taken over by the Romans,[257] although they were permitted to retain their Punic system of government. [228] Scipio was awarded a triumph and received the agnomen "Africanus". Find out how Rome eventually triumphed in the Punic Wars, and why they began in the first place. [38][48] More formal battles were usually preceded by the two armies camping one to seven miles (2–12 km) apart for days or weeks; sometimes forming up in battle order each day. [155] The Roman commanders captured Saguntum in 212 BC[207] and in 211 BC hired 20,000 Celtiberian mercenaries to reinforce their army. [196] After the Carthaginians failed to resupply the city, Syracuse fell in the autumn of 212 BC; Archimedes was killed by a Roman soldier. [28] The immediate cause of the war was the issue of control of the independent Sicilian city state of Messana (modern Messina). A fresh Roman army attacked the main Carthaginian stronghold on the island, Agrigentum, in 210 BC and the city was betrayed to the Romans by a discontented Carthaginian officer. [112] Goldsworthy describes Roman manpower losses as "appalling". Publius Scipio was the bereaved son of the previous Roman co-commander in Iberia, also named Publius Scipio, and the nephew of the other co-commander, Gnaeus Scipio. [248] At times the Romans progressed from rooftop to rooftop, to prevent missiles being hurled down on them. The end of the war sparked a major but unsuccessful revolt within the Carthaginian Empire known as the Mercenary War. At the start of the war Carthage was the dominant power of the western Mediterranean, with an extensive maritime empire; while Rome was a rapidly expanding power in Italy, with a strong army but a weak navy. Not only did they lose the war, but Carthage incurred the wrath of Rome, who again deemed its old foe a threat. [225], The peace treaty imposed on the Carthaginians stripped them of all of their overseas territories, and some of their African ones. [240], In early 147 BC Scipio Aemilianus, an adopted grandson of Scipio Africanus who had distinguished himself during the previous two years' fighting, was elected consul and took control of the war. Please enter your number below. Lesson 3. Thus, Rome won all three Punic wars. [232], In 149 BC a Roman army of approximately 50,000 men, jointly commanded by both consuls, landed near Utica, 35 kilometres (22 mi) north of Carthage. The Punic Wars were a series of conflicts fought between the forces of ancient Carthage and Rome between 264 BCE and 146 BCE. [149] In Cisalpine Gaul (modern northern Italy), the major Gallic tribes attacked the Roman colonies there, causing the Romans to flee to their previously-established colony of Mutina (modern Modena), where they were besieged. [118], The Mercenary, or Truceless, War began in 241 BC as a dispute over the payment of wages owed to 20,000 foreign soldiers who had fought for Carthage on Sicily during the First Punic War. The main Roman camp was in a swamp, which caused an outbreak of disease during the summer. [196], Carthage sent more reinforcements to Sicily in 211 BC and went on the offensive. Scipio was not able to prevent Hasdrubal from leading his depleted army over the western passes of the Pyrenees into Gaul. [99][100], Slowly the Romans had occupied most of Sicily; in 250 BC they besieged the last two Carthaginian strongholds – Lilybaeum and Drepana in the extreme west. Hannibal’s elephant charge was deflected back into the Carthaginian ranks, followed by a combined cavalry and infantry advance, which crushed Hannibal’s forces. [231] Masinissa's seizures of and raids into Carthaginian territory became increasingly flagrant. [104] Carthage turned to the maritime offensive, inflicting another heavy naval defeat at the Battle of Phintias and all but swept the Romans from the sea. [173], Little has survived of Polybius's account of Hannibal's army in Italy after Cannae. The Carthaginians were again beaten;[83] this was possibly the largest naval battle in history by the number of combatants involved. Vast amounts of materiel were delivered, including 200,000 sets of armour, 2,000 catapults and a large number of warships. Their army raided the Roman lines of communication,[240] and in 148 BC Carthaginian fire ships destroyed many Roman vessels. Most of his losses were among his Iberian allies. Archimedes before being killed by the Roman soldier – copy of a Roman mosaic from the 2nd century, Roman controlled territory in Iberia 218–214, 2nd century BC marble bust, identified as the younger Scipio, now in the. [160] The Romans stationed an army at Arretium and one on the Adriatic coast to block Hannibal's advance into central Italy. [126] An expedition was prepared to reoccupy Sardinia, where mutinous soldiers had slaughtered all Carthaginians. The Punic Wars was a series of three wars waged from 264-146 between the north African city-state of Carthage and Rome for control of the western Mediterranean region. [232][243] The Carthaginians continued to resist vigorously: they constructed warships and during the summer twice gave battle to the Roman fleet, losing both times. [211], In the spring of 208 BC, Hasdrubal moved to engage Scipio at the Battle of Baecula. The Romans facing Hannibal in southern Italy tricked him into believing the whole Roman army was still in camp, while a large portion marched north and reinforced the Romans facing Hasdrubal. Some members of the city council denounced his actions and Hasdrubal had them too put to death and took control of the city. Furious at Hannibal’s audacity, the Romans demanded that he be handed over for punishment. [201], After Publius Cornelius Scipio invaded the Carthaginian homeland in 204 BC, defeating the Carthaginians in two major battles and winning the allegiance of the Numidian kingdoms of North Africa, Hannibal and the remnants of his army were recalled. [141] In 226 BC the Ebro Treaty was agreed with Rome, specifying the Ebro River as the northern boundary of the Carthaginian sphere of influence. [171] The Roman Senate authorised the raising of a force of 86,000 men, the largest in Roman history to that point. Approximately 1,200 of the infantry, poorer or younger men unable to afford the armour and equipment of a standard legionary, served as javelin-armed skirmishers, known as velites. At … The second Punic War ended in 202 BC. [230] Over the following 48 years he repeatedly took advantage of Carthage's inability to protect its possessions. [259][260] Rome still exists as the capital of Italy;[261] the ruins of Carthage lie 24 kilometres (15 mi) east of Tunis on the North African coast. [38][52], Quinqueremes, meaning "five-oarsmen",[53] provided the workhorses of the Roman and Carthaginian fleets throughout the Punic Wars. What if Carthage Won the Punic Wars? In 205 BC this war ended with a negotiated peace. The period is usually split into three distinct wars – the First Punic War was fought from 264–241 BC, the Second Punic War from 218–201 BC and the Third Punic War from 149–146 BC. [143], In 219 BC a Carthaginian army under Hannibal besieged, captured and sacked Saguntum[132][144] and in spring 218 BC Rome declared war on Carthage. What were the consequences of the first Punic war? When the Carthaginians refused, the Third Punic War broke out. With this successful tactic, Rome won the war and earned the territory of Sicily. The Punic Wars were fought between 264 BCE and 146 BCE. [196] Meanwhile, the Carthaginian army was crippled by plague. Mago marched his reinforced army towards the lands of Carthage's main Gallic allies in the Po Valley, but was checked by a large Roman army and defeated at the Battle of Insubria in 203 BC. Books shelved as punic-wars: The Punic Wars by Adrian Goldsworthy, Scipio Africanus: Greater than Napoleon by B.H. [150] An army had previously been created by the Romans to campaign in Iberia, but the Roman Senate detached one Roman and one allied legion from it to send to north Italy. [169] Fabius introduced the Fabian strategy of avoiding open battle with his opponent, but constantly skirmishing with small detachments of the enemy. Carthage paid its war debt to Rome over 50 years, until 149 BC. [250] It took six days to clear the city of resistance, and on the last day Scipio agreed to accept prisoners. all people in carthage were murdered, the city was destroyed, the land was salted (hatred) how did the punic wars change rome. By the end of the Second Punic Wars… What was the result of the 3rd Punic War? [64], All warships were equipped with rams, a triple set of 60-centimetre-wide (2 ft) bronze blades weighing up to 270 kilograms (600 lb) positioned at the waterline. [106][107], After more than 20 years of war, both states were financially and demographically exhausted. [153] A Roman fleet carrying the Iberian-bound army landed at Rome's ally Massalia (modern Marseille) at the mouth of the Rhone,[154] but Hannibal evaded the Romans and they continued to Iberia. With no serious threat coming from Carthage, Rome had the opportunity to expand, eventually becoming the empire that would dominate the known world. The Roman general Publius Scipio won a decisive battle at Ilipa in 206 and forced the Carthaginians out of Spain. If either commander felt at a disadvantage, they might might march off without engaging. Thanks! [102][103] They launched a surprise attack on the Carthaginian fleet, but were defeated at the Battle of Drepana; Carthage's greatest naval victory of the war. They carried several javelins, which would be thrown from a distance, a short sword, and a 90-centimetre (3 ft) shield. [129] Polybius considered this "contrary to all justice"[127] and modern historians have variously described the Romans' behaviour as "unprovoked aggression and treaty-breaking",[127] "shamelessly opportunistic"[130] and an "unscrupulous act". [224] Hannibal attempted to use 80 elephants to break into the Roman infantry formation, but the Romans countered them effectively and they routed back through the Carthaginian ranks. [23], Beginning in 480 BC, Carthage had fought a series of inconclusive wars against the Greek city states of Sicily, led by Syracuse. Hostages were taken. This breach of the recently signed treaty is considered by modern historians to be the single greatest cause of war with Carthage breaking out again in 218 BC in the Second Punic War. Punic Wars, also called Carthaginian Wars, (264–146 bce ), a series of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire, resulting in the destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. [172] Hasdrubal led Carthaginian cavalry on the left wing and routed the Roman cavalry opposite, then swept around the rear of the Romans to attack the cavalry on the other wing. [195], A large Carthaginian army led by Himilco was sent to relieve the city in 213 BC. [51] Many battles were decided when one side's infantry force was attacked in the flank or rear and they were partially or wholly enveloped. [110][117], The Treaty of Lutatius was agreed. The Romans crossed the seas to North Africa and besieged the Phoenician city of Carthage (currently in Tunis). [183][185], Meanwhile, the Romans took drastic steps to raise new legions: enrolling slaves, criminals and those who did not meet the usual property qualification. Punic War Navy Greek Carthaginians territory. The campaign ended in disaster for the Carthaginians and their army surrendered. [58][59] In 260 BC Romans set out to construct a fleet and used a shipwrecked Carthaginian quinquereme as a blueprint for their own. [225] Unlike most battles of the Second Punic War, the Romans had superiority in cavalry and the Carthaginians in infantry. In most circumstances Carthage recruited foreigners to make up its army. An indemnity of 10,000 silver talents[note 11] was to be paid over 50 years. The Third Punic War happened between 149 BC and 146 BC and it was the Romans on the offensive again. [182], When the port city of Locri defected to Carthage in the summer of 215 BC it was immediately used to reinforce the Carthaginian forces in Italy with soldiers, supplies and war elephants. Carthage was a wealthy trading city, and its leaders were flirting with the idea of controlling Spain and Sicily, while Rome very much liked the idea of … How many Punic Wars were there? The Third Punic War. [177][178], However, the majority of Rome's allies remained loyal, including many in southern Italy. Third Punic War, also called Third Carthaginian War, (149–146 bce), third of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) Empire that resulted in the final destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. [202] After the second of these Syphax was pursued and taken prisoner by Masinissa at the Battle of Cirta; Masinissa then seized most of Syphax's kingdom with Roman help. One of those disinherited was the Numidian prince Masinissa, who was thus driven into the arms of Rome. [207] Observing that the three Carthaginian armies were deployed apart from each other, the Romans split their forces. [191], A rebellion in support of the Carthaginians broke out on Sardinia in 213 BC, but it was quickly put down by the Romans. [175][176] Several of the city states in southern Italy allied themselves with Hannibal, or were captured when pro-Carthaginian factions betrayed their defences. answer choices . Rome, Carthage, Carthage. [15], Other, later, ancient histories of the war exist, although often in fragmentary or summary form. The previously Carthaginian territories were taken over as the Roman province of Africa. what were the results of the third punic war. The approximate extent of territory controlled by Rome and Carthage immediately before the start of the First Punic War. [251] There were 50,000 Carthaginian prisoners, a small proportion of the pre-war population, who were sold into slavery. The Syracusan army proved no match for the Romans, and by spring 213 BC Syracuse was besieged. There seems to be a problem, please try again. [163] Hannibal attempted without success to draw the main Roman army under Gaius Flaminius into a pitched battle by devastating the area they had been sent to protect. [244] Hasdrubal had Roman prisoners tortured to death on the walls, in view of the Roman army. He was reinforcing the will to resist in the Carthaginian citizens; from this point there could be no possibility of negotiations. answer choices . The combined Roman force attacked Hasdrubal at the Battle of the Metaurus and destroyed his army, killing Hasdrubal. [94][95] The Romans rapidly rebuilt their fleet, adding 220 new ships, and captured Panormus (modern Palermo) in 254 BC. It entered Gaul and took an inland route, to avoid the Roman allies to the south. [236] This done, the Romans demanded the Carthaginians burn their city and relocate at least 16 kilometres (10 mi) from the sea; the Carthaginians broke off negotiations and set to recreating their armoury. [179] The new allies increased the number of fixed points which Hannibal's army was expected to defend from Roman retribution, but provided relatively few fresh troops to assist him in doing so. [172] As a result, the Roman infantry was surrounded with no means of escape. Carthage, Rome, Rome. [207] This strategy resulted in the Battle of Castulo and the Battle of Ilorca, usually combined as the Battle of the Upper Baetis. [162] Hannibal marched through the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping the devastation would draw Fabius into battle, but Fabius refused. His aim was to join his forces with those of Hannibal, but Hannibal was unaware of his presence. [69] The Romans then pressed Syracuse, the only significant independent power on the island, into allying with them[70] and laid siege to Carthage's main base at Akragas on the south coast. 2,000 talents was approximately 52,000 kilograms (51 long tons) of silver. [114] This new fleet effectively blockaded the Carthaginian garrisons. In the peace treaty that followed, Rome gained Sicily – its first overseas province. [192][196] It captured several Roman-garrisoned towns on Sicily; many Roman garrisons were either expelled or massacred by Carthaginian partisans. [242] The war dragged on into 147 BC. History. [155] A rushed Carthaginian attack in late 218 BC was beaten off at the Battle of Cissa. [49][50] Forming up in battle order was a complicated and premeditated affair, which took several hours. The remaining Carthaginian-controlled towns then surrendered or were taken through force or treachery[197][198] and the Sicilian grain supply to Rome and its armies was resumed. [221], Rome and Carthage entered into peace negotiations, and Carthage recalled Hannibal from Italy. A treaty was agreed in 201 BC which stripped Carthage of its overseas territories, and some of their African ones; imposed a large indemnity, to be paid over 50 years; severely restricted the size of its armed forces; and prohibited Carthage from waging war without Rome's express permission. If you subscribe to BBC History Magazine Print or Digital Editions then you can unlock 10 years’ worth of archived history material fully searchable by Topic, Location, Period and Person. [115] Henceforth Rome considered itself the leading military power in the western Mediterranean, and increasingly the Mediterranean region as a whole. [211][213] He released the captured population and liberated the Iberian hostages held there by the Carthaginians to ensure the loyalty of their tribes,[211][213] although many of them were subsequently to fight against the Romans. They would rather make allies. [172] At least 67,500 Romans were killed or captured. [211][214][215], In 206 BC, at the Battle of Ilipa, Scipio with 48,000 men, half Italian and half Iberian, defeated a Carthaginian army of 54,500 men and 32 elephants. The name Punic comes from the word Phoenician (Phoinix in the Greek, Poenus from Punicus in Latin) as applied to the citizens of Carthage, who were of Phoenician ethnicity. [199], In the spring of 207 BC, Hasdrubal Barca marched across the Alps and invaded Italy with an army of 30,000 men. 1909 times. The ruins of the city lie 16 kilometres (10 mi) east of modern Tunis on the North African coast. [205], The Roman fleet continued on from Massala in the autumn of 218 BC, landing the army it was transporting in north-east Iberia, where it won support among the local tribes. Gladiators in ancient Rome: how did they live and die. Land operations were largely confined to raids, sieges and interdiction; in 23 years of war on Sicily there were only two full-scale pitched battles. Hiero II, the old tyrant of Syracuse of forty-five-years standing and a staunch Roman ally, died in 215 BC and his successor Hieronymus was discontented with his situation. In the century prior to the Punic Wars, boarding had become increasingly common and ramming had declined, as the larger and heavier vessels adopted in this period lacked the speed and manoeuvrability necessary to ram, while their sturdier construction reduced the ram's effect even in case of a successful attack. Hannibal is one of the greatest military leaders in world history. The First Punic War was fought from 264-241 BCE. The elephants routed through the Carthaginian infantry, who were then charged by the Roman infantry to complete their defeat. Livy gives a fuller record, but according to Goldsworthy "his reliability is often suspect", especially with regard to his descriptions of battles;[note 9] nevertheless his is the best surviving source for this part of the war. [41][43] The Carthaginians also employed war elephants; North Africa had indigenous African forest elephants at the time. There was also extensive fighting in Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal); on Sicily; on Sardinia; and in North Africa. His surprise entry into the Italian peninsula led to the cancellation of Rome's planned campaign for the year: an invasion of Africa. [165] Hannibal set an ambush[165] and in the Battle of Lake Trasimene completely defeated the Roman army, killing 15,000 Romans,[166] including Flaminius,[165] and taking 15,000 prisoner. [181] Such Italian forces as were raised resisted operating away from their home cities and performed badly when they did. First Punic War, also called First Carthaginian War, (264–241 bce) first of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in the destruction of Carthage. In response, Roman advisers were sent to train his soldiers[207] and he waged war against the Carthaginian ally Gala. [122] He campaigned successfully, initially demonstrating leniency in an attempt to woo the rebels over. [79], Taking advantage of their naval victories the Romans launched an invasion of North Africa in 256 BC,[82] which the Carthaginians intercepted at the Battle of Cape Ecnomus off the south coast of Sicily. If Carthage defeated the romans it would be unlikely that they would go and conquer the vast territory Rome did. [207], In 210 BC Publius Cornelius Scipio,[note 10] arrived in Iberia with further Roman reinforcements. Destroyer of Carthage and Soldier of the Month was Scipio the Younger. [58] This allowed Roman legionaries acting as marines to board enemy ships and capture them, rather than employing the previously traditional tactic of ramming. rome, because carthage couldn't defend itself. [248][249] When the main assault began it quickly captured the city's main square, where the legions camped overnight. This was not popular among the soldiers, the Roman public or the Roman elite, since he avoided battle while Italy was being devastated by the enemy. [160] A large Roman army was lured into combat by Hannibal at the Battle of the Trebia, encircled and destroyed. Carthage was taken and destroyed in 146 BC, and the Carthaginian territory was made a Roman province. Wars of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Punic_Wars&oldid=988821175, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Roman victory, destruction of Carthage and incorporation of the Carthaginian Empire into the Roman Empire, This page was last edited on 15 November 2020, at 13:01. 3,200 talents was approximately 82,000 kg (81 long tons). [138] This gave Carthage the silver mines, agricultural wealth, manpower, military facilities such as shipyards and territorial depth to stand up to future Roman demands with confidence. That same year, a Roman embassy was sent to Carthage to demand that the city be dismantled and moved inland away from the coast. You're now subscribed to our newsletter. The slightly rode-sounding Punic Wars is the sequel to Celtic Kings, a lesser-known RTS that picked up a respectable 70 per cent in these pages last year. Famously, the Hannibal proceeded to march his forces over the Alps, along with his elephants, and conquered much of northern Italy. [note 2][9] Other sources include coins, inscriptions, archaeological evidence and empirical evidence from reconstructions such as the trireme Olympias. This erupted into full-scale mutiny under the leadership of Spendius and Matho and 70,000 Africans from Carthage's oppressed dependant territories flocked to join the mutineers, bringing supplies and finance. There were three of them. [155][207] The Romans retreated to their coastal stronghold north of the Ebro, from which the Carthaginians again failed to expel them. [93] The Carthaginians attacked and recaptured Akragas in 255 BC, but not believing they could hold the city, they razed and abandoned it. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. [246], Scipio moved back to a close blockade of the city, and built a mole which cut off supply from the sea. [96] The next year they lost another 150 ships to a storm. [179] All except the smallest towns were too well fortified for Hannibal to take by assault, and blockade could be a long-drawn-out affair, or if the target was a port, impossible. As the history of the conflict was written by Roman authors, they labeled it 'The Punic Wars'. That night the Carthaginian garrison escaped and the Romans seized the city and its inhabitants, selling 25,000 of them into slavery. [22] During this period of Roman expansion Carthage, with its capital in what is now Tunisia, had come to dominate southern Spain, much of the coastal regions of North Africa, the Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, and the western half of Sicily. In 297 BC, after recruiting heavily in Gaul, Hasdrubal crossed the Alps into Italy in an attempt to join his brother, Hannibal. Traditionally, when at war the Romans would raise two legions, each of 4,200 infantry[note 3] and 300 cavalry. Hannibal of Carthage . The great rivalry between the two states came to a head in 264 BC when a dispute over Sicily led to the beginning of the Punic Wars. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. [71] A Carthaginian army of 50,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry and 60 elephants attempted to lift the siege in 262 BC, but was heavily defeated at the Battle of Akragas. The Roman adaptation of the corvus was a continuation of this trend and compensated for their initial disadvantage in ship-manoeuvring skills. [188] By 207 BC Hannibal had been confined to the extreme south of Italy and many of the cities and territories which had joined the Carthaginian cause had returned to their Roman allegiance. [162][168], The Romans, panicked by these heavy defeats, appointed Quintus Fabius Maximus as dictator. The First Punic War (264–241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the early 3rd century BC. [206] The Carthaginian commander in Iberia, Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal, marched into this area in 215 BC, offered battle and was defeated at Dertosa, although both sides suffered heavy casualties. [189], During 216 BC the Macedonian king, Philip V, pledged his support to Hannibal[190] – thus initiating the First Macedonian War against Rome in 215 BC. Hasdrubal and his army retreated into the city to reinforce the garrison. [note 4][40][45], Garrison duty and land blockades were the most common operations. [145] There were three main military theatres in the war: Italy, where Hannibal defeated the Roman legions repeatedly, with occasional subsidiary campaigns in Sicily, Sardinia and Greece; Iberia, where Hasdrubal, a younger brother of Hannibal, defended the Carthaginian colonial cities with mixed success until moving into Italy; and Africa, where the war was decided. [105] It was to be seven years before Rome again attempted to field a substantial fleet, while Carthage put most of its ships into reserve to save money and free up manpower. [232] Carthage had paid off its indemnity and was prospering economically, but was no military threat to Rome. A Roman relief army broke through the siege, but was then ambushed and besieged itself. [192], Sicily remained firmly in Roman hands, blocking the ready seaborne reinforcement and resupply of Hannibal from Carthage. Rome had never lost so much manpower and resources in a war, but fought on nonetheless. The main source for almost every aspect of the Punic Wars[note 1] is the historian Polybius (c. 200 – c. 118 BC), a Greek sent to Rome in 167 BC as a hostage. 67% average accuracy. You can unsubscribe at any time. The Second Punic War started in 218 BC and continued until 202 BC. This content first appeared in the February 2016 issue of BBC History Revealed, Save over 50% on a gift subscription to their favourite history magazine. [204] Mago was also recalled; he died of wounds on the voyage and some of his ships were intercepted by the Romans,[204] but 12,000 of his troops reached Carthage. Carthage ceased to be a military threat. [67] Away from the coasts its hilly and rugged terrain made manoeuvring large forces difficult and favoured the defence over the offence. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between 264 and 146 BC fought by the states of Rome and Carthage. [171] Paullus and Varro marched southward to confront Hannibal, who accepted battle on the open plain near Cannae. ... Who won the Punic Wars in order of their victories? [262][263], Wars between Rome and Carthage, 264 to 146 BC, Rome, Southern and Central Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Iberian Islands, Iberia, and North Africa. [24] By 264 BC Carthage was the dominant external power on the island, and Carthage and Rome were the preeminent powers in the western Mediterranean. Mago left Iberia for northern Italy with his remaining forces. [54] So ubiquitous was the type that Polybius uses it as a shorthand for "warship" in general. The Roman Senate stated they considered the preparation of this force an act of war, and demanded Carthage cede Sardinia and Corsica, and pay an additional 1,200-talent indemnity. [196] In the spring of 212 BC the Romans stormed Syracuse in a surprise night assault and captured several districts of the city. [136] After the First Punic War, Carthaginian possessions in Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal) were limited to a handful of prosperous coastal cities in the south. In 264 BC, war was officially declared for control of Sicily. [183] It was the only time during the war that Carthage reinforced Hannibal. After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians were defeated. Hannibal arrived with 20,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry, and an unknown number of elephants – the survivors of the 37 with which he left Iberia[70][157] – in what is now Piedmont, northern Italy. It was prohibited from waging war outside Africa, and in Africa only with Rome's express permission. [161] Only 10,000 Romans out of 42,000 were able to cut their way to safety. Thank you for subscribing to HistoryExtra, you now have unlimited access. [64][65][66], Much of the First Punic War was fought on, or in the waters near, Sicily. Many senior Carthaginians wanted to reject it, but Hannibal spoke strongly in its favour and it was accepted in spring 201 BC. The Third Punic War was the last major armed conflict between Rome and Carthage. [180] Carthage's new allies felt little sense of community with Carthage, or even with each other. The Punic Wars were a series of conflicts fought by the powerful cities of Carthage and Rome between 264 BC and 146 BC. How did the first Punic war began? [29] In 264 BC Carthage and Rome went to war, starting the First Punic War. This battle confirmed Roman dominance in Italy. [142] At some time during the next six years Rome made a separate treaty with the city of Saguntum, which was situated well south of the Ebro. [98][99] In 250 BC the Carthaginians advanced on Panormus, but in a battle outside the walls the Romans drove off the Carthaginian elephants with javelin fire. The western Mediterranean during the Punic Wars. The fighting took place primarily on the Mediterranean island of Sicily and its surrounding waters, and also in North Africa, Corsica and Sardinia. The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World: what were they, and what happened to them? [172], Within a few weeks of Cannae a Roman army of 25,000 was ambushed by Boii Gauls at the Battle of Silva Litana and annihilated. [4][5] Polybius's work is considered broadly objective and largely neutral as between Carthaginian and Roman points of view. It was the 2nd Punic War that saw Hannibal lead his elephant cavalry over the Alps into Italy, yet ultimately he lost the war. Sources other than Polybius are discussed by Bernard Mineo in "Principal Literary Sources for the Punic Wars (apart from Polybius)". [137] Hamilcar took the army which he had led to victory in the Mercenary War to Iberia in 237 BC and carved out a quasi-monarchial, autonomous state in its south east. [207] In 206 BC the Carthaginians ended this drain on their resources by dividing several Numidian kingdoms with him. [255] The province became a major source of grain and other foodstuffs. [73][74] The focus of the war shifted to the sea, where the Romans had little experience; on the few occasions they had previously felt the need for a naval presence they had usually relied on small squadrons provided by their Latin or Greek allies. Preview this quiz on Quizizz. The period is usually split into three distinct wars – the First Punic War was fought from 264–241 BC, the Second Punic War from 218–201 BC and the Third Punic War from 149–146 BC. Carthage, Carthage, Carthage. Rome won the First Punic War after 23 years of conflict and in the end replaced Carthage as the dominant naval power of the Mediterranean. [220] Scipio gave battle to and destroyed two large Carthaginian armies. It began in 149 B.C., and ended in 146 B.C., with Carthage’s destruction by Roman armies led by Publius Cornelius Scipio Emilianus, grandson of Scipio “the African”. Tensions arose between the cities over who should have control of the strategic island of Sicily. [146], In 218 BC there was some naval skirmishing in the waters around Sicily. the areas won by the Romans. [151], Meanwhile, Hannibal assembled a Carthaginian army in New Carthage (modern Cartagena) and led it northwards along the Iberian coast in May or June. The city was sacked and burned to the ground where it lay in ruin for more than a century, with its inhabitants sold into slavery. The official website for BBC History Magazine, BBC History Revealed and BBC World Histories Magazine, Save over 50% on a BBC History Magazine or BBC History Revealed gift subscription, For nearly 80 years, Rome and Carthage fought for supremacy in a series of wars that saw Hannibal lead elephants over the Alps and Rome suffer one of its worst military defeats at Cannae. [37][38] Both Iberia and Gaul provided large numbers of experienced infantry – unarmoured troops who would charge ferociously, but had a reputation for breaking off if a combat was protracted[39][40] – and unarmoured close-order cavalry[41] referred to by Livy as "steady", meaning that they were accustomed to sustained hand-to-hand combat rather than hit and run tactics. A Century of Battles: The Punic Wars, also known as the Carthaginian Wars, consisted of three warring conflicts that occurred between 264 BCE and 146 BCE. Rome and Carthage actually had a long and friendly relationship before the Punic Wars. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. [235] Rome demanded that if war were to be avoided, the Carthaginians must hand over all of their armaments. [89] The Roman fleet, in turn, was devastated by a storm while returning to Italy, losing most of its ships and more than 100,000 men. 1,200 talents was approximately 30,000 kg (30 long tons) of silver. [227] Henceforth it was clear that Carthage was politically subordinate to Rome. Rome won all three. [182] By early 215 BC they were fielding at least 12 legions; by 214 BC, 18; and by 213 BC, 22. The added weight in the prow compromised both the ship's manoeuvrability and its seaworthiness, and in rough sea conditions the corvus became useless; part way through the First Punic War the Romans ceased using it. These wars involved the Romans and Carthaginians. The territory and allies of Rome and Carthage immediately before the start of the Second Punic War. [200], In 205 BC, Mago landed in Genua in north-west Italy with the remnants of his Spanish army (see § Iberia below). [213] In 203 BC Carthage succeeded in recruiting at least 4,000 mercenaries from Iberia, despite Rome's nominal control. [158], Hannibal captured the chief city of the hostile Taurini (in the area of modern Turin) and his army routed the cavalry and light infantry of the Romans at the Battle of Ticinus in late November. Infantry were usually positioned in the centre of the battle line, with light infantry skirmishers to their front and cavalry on each flank. Like Is predecessor, Punic is an Interesting effort set in the times of the Roman Empire, only now on the wars between Carthage and Rome (think Hannibal - the elephant one, not the people-muncher). [211] The Carthaginians were defeated, but Hasdrubal was able to withdraw the majority of his army in good order. To gain a decisive Battle of the peace treaty that followed, Rome contained the threat Macedonia. 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who won the punic wars

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